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Athletics and Physical Education at Bryn Mawr College, 1885-1929

Selected Bibliography

Primary Sources

Ainsworth, Dorothy S. A History of Physical Education in Colleges for Women. New York, A.S. Barnes & Co., 1930.

Ballantine, Harriet Isabel. The History of Physical Training at Vassar College: 1865-1915. Poughkeepsie, NY: Lansing

     & Broas, n.d.

Ballantine, Harriet Isabel. “The Value of Athletics to College Girls.” American Physical Education Review, vol. 6 no. 2, 1901, pp. 151–153.
Berenson, Senda, ed. Line Basket Ball or Basket Ball for Women. New York: American Sports Pub. Co., 1901.
Clapp, Cornelia. Manual of Gymnastics: Prepared for the Use of the Students of Mt. Holyoke Seminary. Boston: Beacon Press, 1883.
Clarke, Edward Hammond. Sex in Education, or, A Fair Chance for Girls. New York: Arno Press, 1873.
Dudley, Gertrude, and Frances A. Kellor. Athletic Games in the Education of Women. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1909.
Fallows, Alice Katharine. "Athletics for College Girls." Century Magazine, May 1903, pp. 58-65.
Galbraith, Anna M. The Four Epochs of Woman’s Life: A Study in Hygiene. 2nd ed. Philadelphia; London: W. B. Saunders Company, 1913.
--. Hygiene and Physical Culture for Women. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1895.
--. Personal Hygiene and Physical Training for Women. 2nd ed. New York; London: W. B. Saunders Company, 1911.
Howe, Julia Ward. Sex and Education: A Reply to Dr. E. H. Clarke's Sex in Education. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1874.
Hill, Lucille E. “Introduction.” Athletics and Outdoor Sports for Women. Ed. Lucille E. Hill. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1903, pp. 1–15.
Lee, Mabel. “The Case For and Against Intercollegiate Athletics for Women and the Situation as It Stands Today.” American Physical Education Review, vol. 29, January 1924, pp. 13–19.
--. “The Case For and Against Intercollegiate Athletics for Women and the Situation Since 1923.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 2, May 1931, pp. 93–127.
Litchfield, Miriam. "The History of Athletics." The Vassar Miscellany, October 1915, pp. 165-172.
MacLaughlin, Helene Saxe. “Field Hockey - Girls.” American Physical Education Review, vol. 16 no.1, 1911, pp. 41–43.
McCabe, Lida Rose. “Physical Development.” The American Girl at College. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1893.
Napheys, George H. The Physical Life of Woman: Advice to the Maiden, Wife, and Mother. 6th ed. Philadelphia; New York; Boston: George Maclean, 1870.
Perrin, Ethel, ed. Women and Athletics. New York: Child Health Association, 1928.
Richardson, S.F. “Tendencies in Athletics for Women in Colleges and Universities.” Popular Science, 1897, pp. 517–526.
Sargent, Dudley Allen. Health, Strength and Power. New York; Boston: H. M. Caldwell Co., 1904.
--. “The Physical Development of Women.” Scribner’s Magazine, 1889, pp. 172–185.
Trilling, Blanche M. “The Playtime of a Million Girls or an Olympic Victory - Which?” The Nation’s Schools, vol. 6, August 1929, pp. 69–73.
Wayman, Agnes. “Women’s Athletics: All Uses - No Abuses.” American Physical Education Review, vol. 29, November 1924.


Secondary Sources

 Collins, Tracy J. R. Physical Fitness, Sports, Athletics, and the Rise of the New Woman. Dissertation, Purdue University: West Lafayette, Indiana, 2007.
Cottrell, Debbie Mauldin. “The Sargent School for Physical Education.” Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, vol. 65 no. 3, 1994, pp. 32–37.
Fletcher, Sheila. Women First: The Female Tradition in English Physical Education, 1880-1980. London: Athlone, 1984.
Gerber, Ellen W. The American Woman in Sport. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1974.
---. “The Controlled Development of Collegiate Sport for Women, 1923-1936.” Journal of Sport History, vol. 2 no. 1, 1972, pp. 1–28.
Hargreaves, Jennifer. “Playing Like Gentlemen While Behaving Like Ladies: The Social Significance of Physical Activity for Females in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Britain.” British Journal of Sports History, vol. 2, May 1985.
Himes, Cindy L. “The Female Athlete in American Society: 1860-1940.” Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, 1986.
Huebner, Karin Louise. “The Student Cultures of Athletics and Smashing: Smith College, 1890-1905.” Dissertation, University of Southern California: Los Angeles, 2004.
Hult, Joan S., and Marianna Trekell, eds. A Century of Women’s Basketball: From Frailty to Final Four. Reston, Va.: National Association for Girls and Women in Sport, 1991.
Horowitz, Helen Lefkowtiz. The Power and the Passion of M. Carey Thomas. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
Lenskyj, Helen. “Common Sense and Physiology: North American Medical Views on Women and SPort: 1890-1930.” Canadian Journal of History of Sport vol. 21, May 1990, pp. 49–64.
McCrone, Kathleen E. Playing the Game: Sport and the Physical Emancipation of English Women, 1870-1914. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1988.
Mrozek, Donald J. “The ‘Amazon’ and the American ‘Lady’: Sexual Fears of Women as Athletes.” The New American Sport History : Recent Approaches and Perspectives. Ed. S. W. Pope. Urbana: University of Illinois Press,1997.
Park, Roberta J. “‘Embodied Selves’: The Rise and Development for Concern for Physical Education, Active Games and Recreation for American Women, 1776-1865.” Journal of Sport History vol. 5 no. 2, 1978, pg. 5–41.
---. “Physiologists, Physicians, and Physical Educators: Nineteenth Century Biology and Excercise, Hygienic and Educative.” Journal of Sport History, vol. 14 no.1, 1987, pp. 28–60.
---. “Physiology and Anatomy Are Destiny?!: Brains, Bodies and Exercise in Nineteenth Century American Thought.” Journal of Sport History, vol. 18 no. 1, 1991, pp. 31–63.
---. “Sport, Gender and Society in a Transatlantic Victorian Perspective.” International Journal of the History of Sport, vol. 24 no. 12, 2007, pp. 1570–1603.
Rader, Benjamin G. American Sports: From the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Televised Sports. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009.
Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. “The New Woman as Androgyne: Social Disorder and the Gender Crisis, 1870-1936.” Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America. New York : A.A. Knopf, 1985.
Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll and Charles Rosenberg. "The Female Animal: Medical and Biological Views of Women and their Role in Nineteenth-century America." From 'Fair Sex' to Feminism: Sport and the Socialization of Women in the Industrial and Post-Industrial Era. London; Totowa, NJ: F. Cass, 1987.
Stanley, Gregory Kent. The Rise and Fall of the Sportswoman: Women’s Health, Fitness, and Athletics, 1860-1940. New York: P. Lang, 1996.
Todd, Jan. Physical Culture and the Body Beautiful: Purposive Exercise in the Lives of American Women 1800-1870. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1998.
Verbrugge, Martha H. Able-Bodied Womanhood: Personal Health and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Boston. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
--. Active Bodies: A History of Women's Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Vertinsky, Patricia. The Eternally Wounded Woman: Women, Exercise and Doctors in the Late Nineteenth Century. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1990.
Zieff, Susan Gail. “The Medicalization of Higher Education: Women Physicians and Physical Training, 1870-1920.” Dissertation, University of California: Berkeley, 1994.